Instructional Methods

Students engage when instructional methods emphasize active and experiential learning. Just as in other curriculum areas, using role playsmall groups, class discussion and videos in sexual health education can bring the curriculum to life. It also helps students explore the content and understand how it relates to their own ideas, values and experiences. These activities will often encourage some great conversations and lots of questions. Remember to use ground rules during the session.

Role Play

Role play is learning how to best handle a situation by practicing scenarios and trying out different ways to approach them. Acting out scenarios, problems and issues in a safe setting helps develop decision-making skills. Role play improves self-confidence and influences student behaviour in sexual health education. When preparing a scenario, it’s important that the structure emphasizes healthy sexuality and reinforces the basic concepts you want the student to learn, such as negotiating abstinence.

Role play:

  • allows students to assume other people’s roles to help them learn and understand another person’s point of view
  • allows students to safely explore scenarios and solutions
  • tends to motivate students to learn
  • promotes and develops critical and creative thinking, attitudes, values and social skills

Procedure

1. Prepare the role play ahead of time

  • Decide whether to
    • Use student volunteers in front of the class (the teacher doesn’t have to play a role).
    • Use partners/small group, with every student playing a role.
    • Use small groups with role-players and observers.
    • Model the skill with a scripted role play.
  • Create a hypothetical problem, situation or event that represents their reality.
  • Define the problem, situation and roles clearly.

2. Give clear instructions

  • Include a short time limit for partners/groups to plan and rehearse their role play.

3. Act out role-plays

  • Students follow the procedure outlined by the teacher.
  • Unless the teacher is playing a role, it helps if the teacher walks around the room to watch how students are carrying out the role play and coach students who are stuck.
  • Students may need to repeat the role play taking different roles or revising their responses.

4. Discussion (small group and whole class)

  • Begin by having students talk about the feelings they had during the role play.
  • Have students identify the sexual health skills shown during the role play.
  • Talk about what makes these skills stronger or weaker (e.g., body language).
  • Talk about how this role play is or isn’t similar to real life.
  • Talk about ways the student can use these sexual health skills in real life situations.

Alternatives to Traditional Procedure

  • Have students write role plays as scripts but don’t act them out.
  • Have students write down responses and then role play in front of the class.
  • Have students make a list of challenging lines, have a student read the lines to the class then have each student give a response.
  • Have students develop and act out plays.

Tips for Using Role Play

  • To help build student confidence, try introducing readings before role playing to introduce new knowledge and experiences.
  • Begin with fairly easy situations and work up to more challenging ones.
  • Remember that some students may feel threatened or self-conscious. Using humour can help make students more comfortable. Using role plays that exaggerate weak responses might break the ice.
  • Don’t make the topic so abstract or complex that the student misses the concepts.
  • If students find it hard to figure out which skills model positive sexual health behaviours, have them watch successful role models or you could ask them to suggest another way of doing it.
  • If trying an exercise that hasn’t been scripted, be sure it’s the right approach for your students’ comfort level.

Role Play Activities Examples

Grade 7 Lesson 1 Choosing Abstinence: Abstinence Role Play Scenarios. Students learn how to postpone sexual activity by developing their refusal skills.

Grade 9 Lesson 1 Safer Sex: Examining Assertive CommunicationStudents act out passive, assertive and aggressive response to different communication scenarios.

CALM Lesson 1 Building Healthy Relationships: Relationship Role Play. Students learn and practice skills for building, maintaining and enhancing healthy, positive relationships.

Small Group

Interaction is a powerful learning tool. The cooperation, problem-solving, negotiation and critical thinking skills needed for small group work are also part of the positive sexual health skills that students need to develop.

Advantages of Small Groups

When students work in small groups, they think through an idea, present it to others so that they can understand and often exchange ideas and viewpoints. Students learn faster, remember what they’ve learned better and tend to be more positive about the lesson.

This:

  • encourages positive attitudes toward sexual health
  • increases self-confidence
  • promotes intellectual growth
  • adds to students’ personal and social development

Procedure

There’s no one ‘right’ way to approach small group activities when teaching sexual health. You have to choose models and methods that match your teaching style, your students and the lesson content. Following some basic steps at the beginning will help make the small group activities more effective.

Positive Interdependence

Students need to work cooperatively with everyone in the group and contribute to the goal. You may need to set up an ice breaker before the lesson begins to help make the students more comfortable with the topic.

Social Skills

Small group work means students have to listen to one another, ask questions, clarify issues and re-state their point of view. You’ve been teaching your students these skills through demonstration and instruction all year, when you:

  • listen when others speak
  • maintain eye contact and positive body language
  • encourage and show respect
  • speak quietly and without hostility

When teaching sexual health, these skills become extra important. This is because students may cover their embarrassment about the content by acting out poor social skills. Clear and direct ground rules will help students remember to use their social skills when working in their small group.

Group Processing

Just as in many other subject areas, students will have a wide range of reactions to the content. It’s important that students feel safe to share their ideas and know how to disagree respectfully without hurting others. Have students think about the positive ways the group worked together to reach their goal. This helps make the process clearer and improves their cooperative learning skills, and also increases their positive sexual health skills.

Types of Small Group Activities

Think-Pair-Share: Students work independently to write down thoughts or ideas about a topic and then share these ideas with a partner. Partners ask each other questions to make sure they fully understand.

 Jigsaw: Divide class into groups. Assign each group a separate topic. Everyone in each group must be become an expert on the topic by the end of a given time. Form new groups made up of one member of each original group. ‘Experts’ then share findings from various topics from their original groups with the new group members.

 Group Investigations: Students work to produce a group project—they may help select the project.

 Circle of Voices: Students are given a topic and a few minutes to organize their thoughts. Each student has uninterrupted time to speak to their small group. Each student should be assigned the same amount of time and have to stick to it. After everyone has had a turn, the group can talk about the topic. During that time, they’re only allowed to build on what someone else has said, not their original ideas.

 Snowballing: Students are divided into pairs, with each pair being given the same material on a sexual health topic. They then join with another pair to compare and contrast differences in their understanding. The groups combine again and repeat the compare-contrast process.

Tips for Using Small Groups

  • Direct work towards a clear goal or set of goals.
  • Tasks should be specific and outlined in detail.
  • Give each group member a specific task (leader, recorder, reporter, monitor, etc.).
  • Groups need to be interdependent—relying on all group members to reach a goal.
  • Give groups space where they can work face-to-face without being disrupted.
  • Watch the group closely during group activities to make sure students stay on task and on track.
  • Reinforce positive contributions and remember the ground rules.
  • Give enough time for feedback and reflection at the end of each session.

Question Box

The Question Box enhances learning. Using a Question Box gives you time to review the questions to make sure that you’re comfortable answering them appropriately for the grade level you’re teaching, and that you know the answers.

Here are some tips when answering questions in the classroom if you use a question box:

  • Group similar questions together.
  • Read the question—as written—to the class.
  • Define words, including slang and continue on using the correct terminology. For example, if a student’s question is “What is a homo?” you could say, “A homo or homosexual is a hurtful slang word used to put down people who have sexual or romantic attraction to people of the same sex.”
  • Answer the question clearly, objectively, factually and appropriately for each grade level.
  • Assume all questions, even shock ones, are real questions. After all, they came from somewhere. It’s likely a genuine request for information, no matter how shocking it may be!
  • Don’t give more information than what was asked or assume more than what the question asked.

Student questions can usually be grouped into four broad overlapping categories. Click each link below for more information:

Class Discussion

Talking about sexual health with students can be challenging because it’s a subject that touches on our privacy and our vulnerability. Open conversations let students express opinions and exchange information safely within the classroom. They also let students practice healthy communication skills, such as respect for other people’s feelings, asking questions when they feel vulnerable, or sharing their views.

Class discussions will likely be more effective if they take place after you’ve given the material through a lecture, video or reading. You’ll likely need to remind students of the ground rules at the beginning each class discussion to make sure all students feel safe and respected during the activity.

Advantages of Classroom Discussion

  • Helps build a positive classroom climate.
  • Leads to student interest in sexual health.
  • Makes students feel more positive about themselves and the learning environment.
  • Makes the student feel the changes are ‘normal’.
  • Allows more students to be involved and express their ideas.

Procedure

  1. Set up an atmosphere that assures sensitivity during the activity
  • Make sure ground rules are in place.
  • Introduce the topic with a short lecture, video or skit.
  • Define terms to make sure all students are at a similar level of understanding and have the same information.

 

  1. Hold the discussion
  • Encourage students to take part by asking questions, making suggestions and expressing their ideas.
  • Probe, prompt and re-direct students to add to the discussion.
  • Encourage students to remember, analyze, generalize and personalize the information.
  • Make sure correct information is being shared among the class (correct misinformation and use proper terminology).

 

  1. Finish the discussion
  • Find consensus, a solution, talk about what students have learned in the discussion or give a summary (preferably one given by students)

Tips for Using Class Discussion

  • Introduce facts and correct any misinformation.
  • Help students use the proper terminology.
  • Be consistent with ground rules, such as raising your hand or listening to the speaker. Some teachers find using an object (like talking stick) helps.
  • Be respectful of the student’s questions or responses.
  • Use ‘wait time’, the pause between asking a question and asking for a response. This gives students time to think about and give a more reflective answer.
  • Use open-ended questions to encourage higher level thinking.
  • Be aware of your own values and reactions during the discussion (despite what you think or feel, you must model sensitivity and respect).

Examples

Grade 4 Lesson 1 Puberty Changes: Newsprint Display. Normalize the great and tough things about growing up through a group discussion.

Grade 7-9 Quick Lesson: Sexual Development: Puberty Discussion Questions. Help students identify puberty as a time of change and development using discussion questions.

Grade 9 Lesson 1: Coping with Development: Evaluating Self-esteem. Students look at the impact of negative self-esteem, negative feelings and coping strategies.

Videos

Videos can be an entertaining way to introduce content and raise issues in the sexual health classroom. While there are many videos, not all are appropriate for the classroom. It’s important to find the right media and to use it effectively to ensure student learning is optimized. It’s always a good idea to have videos approved by your school administration.

Advantages of Video

  • Stimulates discussion by ‘breaking the ice’ on sensitive topics
  • Can increase your comfortby giving the information visually (e.g. how to use a condom).
  • Illustrates complex or abstract concepts (such as internal anatomy and physiology) through animated or 3-D images.

Procedure

  1. Preview the media
  • Use only those parts of the media that match the lesson’s objectives.
  • Make sure the media is appropriate for the grade and age.
  • Give r parents or other community members a chance to preview the media.
  • Evaluate your resource before using it in the classroom.
  1. Prepare the classroom
  • Check the equipment (projector, computer, DVD, website, remote control).
  • Arrange the seating
  • Have the media ready ahead of time.
  1. Include lead-in activities
  • Review vocabulary or key concepts.
  • Ask students to make predictions about what they think they’ll see and learn.
  • Give focus questions ahead of time.
  1. Segment your viewing
  • Pause the media before and after important points to highlight a certain idea or check for comprehension.
  • Ask students to connectwhat they’re seeing to other topics or real-life events.
  • Pause the media to create a still picture when important visuals are used.
  1. Include follow-up activities
  • Many programs come with a teacher’s guide with activity suggestions. Think about using a small group discussion, role play or post-test to re-inforce the learning.

Tips for Using Video

  • Remember – all media comes with a ‘stop’ button.
  • Leave the lights on to reinforce that media is not passive entertainment.
  • Try turning off the sound or the picture. No sound allows you to narrate based on your students’ needs. No picture (turn down the brightness) encourages students to concentrate on the message.

Examples

Use our demonstration videos to show how to use condoms and latex barriers. Each video has speaker notes for additional information.

 
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